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Kumittipathi Rock Paintings

Why in News: Vandals have inflicted damage upon the rock art paintings found in the cave located in Kumittipathi, a village near Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.Mindless act: Miscreants have caused damage to the rock art paintings at the cave at Kumittipathi, a village near Coimbatore, by scribbling their names in the cave and tracing the paintings with chalks.Mindless act: Miscreants have caused damage to the rock art paintings at the cave at Kumittipathi, a village near Coimbatore, by scribbling their names in the cave and tracing the paintings with chalks.Kumittipathi Caveart | Coimbatore

About Kumittipathi Rock Paintings

  • Historical Significance: These paintings, estimated to be approximately 3,000 years old, hold significant historical value and are considered among the notable rock art sites in the Kongu region.
  • Themes Depicted: The paintings portray various subjects, including an elephant, a chariot (often interpreted as a peacock), and scenes from the daily lives of early inhabitants of the region.
  • Cave Features: Within the cave, there are small pits and holes believed to have served as storage spaces for water and other belongings, offering insights into the lifestyle of ancient inhabitants.
  • Materials Used: The figures in the paintings were created using an inorganic white pigment mixed with natural gum, showcasing the artistic techniques and materials utilized by ancient artists.
  • Unique Setting: Unlike many other rock painting sites in Tamil Nadu, which are typically found on rock shelters, the paintings at Kumittipathi are situated inside a cave, adding to their distinctive character and significance.

Source: TH

Project Akashteer

Why in News: The Indian Army has commenced the implementation of control and reporting systems as part of ‘Project Akashteer’ to enhance its air defense capabilities.Project Akashteer: Indian's Air Defence Upgrade

About Project Akashteer

  • Objective: This initiative is designed to modernize and automate air defense control and reporting procedures through digitization.
  • Enhancing Situational Awareness: The project aims to provide the Indian Army with advanced situational awareness and control capabilities to safeguard friendly aircraft and engage hostile ones in contested airspace effectively.
  • Monitoring Low-Level Airspace: Akashteer will enable real-time monitoring of low-level airspace in the Indian Army’s battle areas, facilitating efficient control of Ground Based Air Defence Weapon Systems.

Key Features of Akashteer Command and Control Systems:


  • Developed by BEL: Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) spearheaded the development of Akashteer as part of the ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’ initiative.
  • Mobile Control Centers: The system’s control centers, designed to be mobile and vehicle-based, ensure operational continuity even in challenging communication environments.
  • Efficiency and Integration: By digitizing air defense processes, Akashteer will streamline operations, enhancing efficiency and integration within the Indian Army.
  • Situational Awareness: Integration of radar and communication systems will provide unparalleled situational awareness, aiding in the detection and engagement of hostile targets.
  • Automation: Akashteer signifies a significant shift towards the automation of air defense operations, enabling swift and precise responses to threats.

Source: ET

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

Why in News: One hundred years following its discovery, the electroencephalogram (EEG) continues to serve as an indispensable instrument for comprehending the workings of the brain.EEG (Electroencephalogram): Uses, Procedure, Risks

About Electroencephalogram (EEG)

Recording Brain Activity: An EEG serves as a recording of brain activity, aiding in the understanding of neurological processes.

Detecting Abnormalities: It is a diagnostic test used to identify abnormalities in brain waves or electrical activity within the brain.


  • Duration: Typically, the procedure lasts for a short duration, often around 30 minutes.
  • Electrode Placement: During the procedure, electrodes, comprised of small metal discs with thin wires, are attached to the scalp.
  • Detection of Electrical Charges: These electrodes detect minute electrical charges generated by brain cell activity.
  • Visualization: The detected charges are amplified and depicted as a graph on a computer screen or recorded in a printout.
  • Specialist Involvement: The EEG procedure is usually conducted by a specialized clinical neurophysiologist.


  • Evaluation of Brain Disorders: EEGs are utilized to assess various brain disorders, such as epilepsy, where seizure activity manifests as rapid spiking waves on the EEG.
  • Lesion Detection: Individuals with brain lesions, resulting from conditions like tumors or strokes, may exhibit abnormal slow EEG waves, depending on the size and location of the lesion.
  • Assessment of Overall Brain Activity: EEGs also provide insights into the overall electrical activity of the brain, aiding in the evaluation of conditions like trauma, drug intoxication, or the extent of brain damage in comatose patients.
  • Monitoring Blood Flow: Additionally, EEGs may be employed to monitor blood flow in the brain during surgical procedures.
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