Live/Online Class Prelims 2024- Answer Key with Solutions


Ola’s Krutrim AI

Source: IE

Why in News: Earlier in the current year, the Indian multinational ridesharing corporation, Ola, unveiled Krutrim AI, branding it as “India’s indigenous AI”.Krutrim- India's first AI unicorn launches Chatbot - GKToday

About Krutrim AI:

  • Personalized Assistant: Krutrim AI is designed to serve as a personalized assistant, simplifying both personal and professional tasks for users.
  • Bridging Cultural Gap: This AI model aims to bridge the gap between conventional AI and the specific needs rooted in Indian languages and culture.
  • Natural Language Processing (NLP): Utilizing NLP, a component of AI, Krutrim AI comprehends the subtleties of human language, including colloquialisms and cultural contexts.
  • Machine Learning (ML) Algorithms: ML algorithms enable Krutrim AI to learn from extensive datasets and enhance its responses over time. Additionally, Deep Learning, an advanced ML branch, aids in pattern recognition and complex data analysis.
  • Intent Understanding: A notable feature of Krutrim AI is its capability to understand the user’s intent, distinguishing it from other AI models.
  • Advanced Understanding: Unlike many AI models that rely on keyword matching and statistical probabilities, Krutrim AI reportedly delves deeper to comprehend user requests thoroughly.
  • Task Assistance: Krutrim AI offers assistance with various creative and knowledge retrieval tasks. Users can draft emails, gather information on topics of interest, acquire new skills, plan travel arrangements, discover new recipes, and more.


Source: DTE

Why in News: A recent study emphasizes the danger of using rice cooked with arsenic-contaminated water, a staple diet for over half of the global population.Arsenic poisoning - Wikipedia

About Arsenic

  • Natural Occurrence: Arsenic is a naturally occurring semimetallic element found widely in the Earth’s crust.
  • Environmental Distribution: It is present in the environment across various mediums such as air, water, and land.
  • Chemical Properties: Arsenic belongs to Group 15 of the periodic table and can exist in gray and yellow crystalline forms.
  • Toxicity: Its inorganic form is highly toxic to humans.
  • Exposure Sources: People are exposed to elevated levels of inorganic arsenic through various means including drinking contaminated water, using such water in food preparation and irrigation, industrial processes, consumption of contaminated food, and smoking tobacco.
  • Health Effects: Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic, primarily through drinking water and food, can result in chronic arsenic poisoning, leading to skin lesions and skin cancer as the most prominent effects.
  • Regional Impact: In India, states such as West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, and Chhattisgarh are reported to be the most affected by groundwater contamination with arsenic levels exceeding permissible limits.

Vote from home facility in the Lok Sabha elections

Source: TH

Why in News: For the first time in the history of Lok Sabha elections, the Election Commission of India (ECI) has introduced the option of voting from home for Persons with Disabilities (PwD) and individuals aged 85 and above.All about the vote-from-home facility in the Lok Sabha elections |  Explained - The Hindu

About Home Voting Scheme

Eligibility Criteria:

  • Individuals aged 85 and above.
  • Persons with Disabilities (PwD) with a disability of at least 40%, certified by the appropriate authority.
  • Media personnel covering polling activities with authorization from the Election Commission.
  • Essential service workers including those in metros, railways, and healthcare.
  • Service voters such as armed forces personnel stationed away from home, Central Armed Police Forces personnel, and those on poll duty.

Procedure for Availing the Home Voting Facility:

  • Submission of Form 12D: This form notifies the Assistant Returning Officer (ARO) of the elector’s inability to physically go to the polling station.
  • Obtaining the Form: The form can be downloaded from the ECI website or obtained from the district officer’s office of the parliamentary constituency.
  • Submission Deadline: The completed form must be submitted within five days of the polling date notification.
  • Home Visit: Two polling officials, accompanied by a videographer and a security personnel, will visit the elector’s residence to oversee the postal ballot voting process.
  • Intimation: The elector will receive notification of the visit date and approximate time via SMS or mail. Two attempts will be made for home voting.
  • Second Visit: If the elector is absent during the first visit, a second visit will be scheduled.
  • Absence on Second Visit: Failure to be present during the second visit will render the elector ineligible for both polling booth and home voting.

Hyperloop Technology

Source: IE

Why in News: Swisspod Technologies, a hyperloop company headquartered in Switzerland, has entered into a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with TuTr Hyperloop, an offshoot of IIT Madras, to collaborate on the development of hyperloop systems in India.India in talks to build Hyperloop; two Indian companies involved in the  project - The Economic Times

About Hyperloop Technology

  • Origins: The hyperloop concept originated in 2013 from the visionary ideas of entrepreneur Elon Musk, aiming for an ultra-high-speed ground-level transportation system.


  • Hyperloop is identified as the fifth mode of transportation, employing magnetic levitation within low-pressure tubes to achieve speeds comparable to airplanes.
  • Magnetic levitation, or maglev, suspends the vehicle above the guideway, akin to conventional railway tracks.


  • Its primary objective is to overcome the constraints of friction and air resistance, facilitating high-speed travel with minimal energy consumption.
  • The design favors a low-pressure system over full vacuum, employing electric compressors and air bearings for reduced friction.

Capsule Movement

  • Capsules move at high velocities within low-pressure tubes, propelled by air cushions, requiring minimal external acceleration except for initial speed boosts.


  • The system comprises a partially evacuated cylindrical tube, capsules or pods for passenger and cargo transport, and stations for boarding and disembarking.


  • Conventional maglev systems necessitate magnets along the entire track length, leading to high costs and reliability risks.
  • Swisspod Technologies adopts a passive infrastructure approach, placing electromagnets on the vehicle itself, eliminating the need for track-mounted magnets.


  • Hyperloop offers numerous advantages, including enhanced safety, speed, affordability, convenience, resilience to weather and disasters, sustainability, and minimal disruption to existing infrastructure.

Hyperloop in India

  • Established in 2014, Virgin Hyperloop aims to establish routes primarily in the US, India, and Saudi Arabia, with passenger operations projected to commence by 2027.
  • The proposed Maharashtra hyperloop plan seeks to connect Mumbai and Pune, reducing travel time from 3 hours by road to just 25 minutes.
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