Live/Online Class Prelims 2024- Answer Key with Solutions


Adopt a Heritage 2.0

Source: PIB

Why in News: The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) revealed its updated website and signed Memorandums of Understanding (MoUs) for the adoption of monuments as part of the Adopt a Heritage 2.0 initiative.Archeological Survey of India (ASI) launches 'Adopt a Heritage 2.0  programme'

Overview of Adopt a Heritage 2.0 Program:

  • Launch in 2023: The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) introduced the “Adopt a Heritage 2.0” initiative in 2023.
  • Collaboration with Corporate Stakeholders: The program aims to facilitate partnerships with corporate entities to support the preservation of monuments for future generations.
  • Number of Monuments: ASI oversees the protection of 3696 monuments across the country, covering various regions.
  • Role of Selected Stakeholders: Development of Amenities: Stakeholders selected under the program will be responsible for developing, providing, and maintaining amenities in categories such as hygiene, accessibility, safety, and knowledge.

Appointment Terms:

  • Initial Term: The initial appointment term for selected stakeholders will be five years.
  • Possibility of Extension: There is a provision for extending the appointment for an additional five years, subject to conditions and evaluations.

India ranks 134th in global human development index, says UNDP report

Source: TH

Why in News: India has ascended one position on the global Human Development Index (HDI), as per the ‘Breaking the gridlock: Reimagining cooperation in a polarised world’ report published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) on March 13th.India ranks 134th in global human development index

Understanding the Human Development Index (HDI):

Composite Measure: The HDI serves as a concise composite measure summarizing a nation’s average accomplishments in three fundamental facets of human development: health, knowledge, and standard of living.

Three Dimensions of Human Development: It encompasses:

  • Health: Represented by life expectancy at birth.
  • Knowledge: Assessed through mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling.
  • Standard of Living: Indicated by Gross National Income (GNI) per capita in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms in US dollars.
  • Goalposts: Each dimension of the HDI establishes minimum and maximum thresholds, known as “goalposts,” against which a country’s standing is evaluated.

Scoring Range: The HDI value ranges between 0 and 1, where a higher value signifies greater human development.

Calculation Method: It is computed as the geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the three dimensions.

Philosophical Foundation: The HDI reflects Amartya Sen’s “capabilities” approach, prioritizing desired outcomes like a satisfactory standard of living over mere means like income per capita.

Highlights from the Recent Report:

India’s HDI Ranking: In 2022, India advanced from 135th to 134th position compared to the previous year.

Total Countries Ranked: The report assessed 193 countries in 2022, compared to 191 in 2021.

Improvements in HDI Indicators: India witnessed enhancements across all HDI indicators in 2022, including increased life expectancy, enhanced education metrics, and higher GNI per capita.

Life Expectancy: Rose from 67.2 to 67.7 years.

Education Metrics: Expected years of schooling reached 12.6, while mean years of schooling elevated to 6.57.

GNI per Capita: Saw a rise from $6,542 to $6,951.

Regional Comparison: Despite its progress, India still lags behind neighboring South Asian countries like Bangladesh (129th), Bhutan (125th), Sri Lanka (78th), and China (75th) in the HDI ranking.


Darien Gap

Source: DTE

Why in News: The hazardous Darien Gap passage, stretching through regions of Central and South America, has witnessed a growing influx of individuals endeavoring to traverse it en route to seeking asylum in the United States.An iStock map of the Darien Gap

Overview of Darien Gap:

Geographic Features:

  • Location: The Darien Gap stretches across northern Colombia and southern Panama.
  • Terrain Description: Spanning approximately 60 miles (97 kilometers), the area is characterized by dense forests, muddy terrain, and instability due to its wet conditions.

Migration Route: Significance: It has emerged as a crucial pathway for global human migration.

Geographic Region:

  • Location: Situated in the easternmost part of the Isthmus of Panama.
  • Extent: Extending into northwestern Colombia, particularly around the Gulf of Urabá, a segment of the Gulf of Darién.
  • Connection: It serves as a vital physiographic link between Central and South America.

Environmental Characteristics:

  • Climate: Darien experiences a hot, humid climate, characterized by tropical rainforests, mangrove swamps, and low mountain ranges hosting cloud forest vegetation.
  • Population Density: Historically, Darien has had a sparse population due to its challenging environmental conditions.

Key Facts about the Isthmus of Panama:

Geopolitical Significance:

  • Connection: It serves as a land bridge linking Central and South America.
  • Borders: The isthmus shares borders with Costa Rica to the west and Colombia to the southeast.
  • Coastlines: It is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

Trade Routes: Strategic Position: The isthmus’ strategic location makes it a natural conduit for international maritime trade, notably through the renowned Panama Canal.


World Monuments Fund Watch 2025

Source: TH

Why in News: Conservationists intend to recommend the Kazhuveli watershed area in Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu, as a candidate for inclusion in the World Monuments Fund Watch 2025 program.World Monuments Watch | World Monuments Fund

Overview of the Kazhuveli Watershed Region:

Geographic Extent:

  • Size: The region covers an area of 740 square kilometers, stretching from Gingee to Marakkanam and extending up to the Auroville plateau.
  • Features: It includes an ancient Eri (tank) network, which has played a vital role in supporting agricultural practices for countless generations.

Objective: The proposal seeks to address the deterioration of the historical water management system and its associated cultural heritage within the region.

About the World Monuments Watch Program:

  • Launch: Established in 1996, the World Monuments Watch is a biennial initiative.
  • Objective: It aims to spotlight heritage sites worldwide that are nominated by individuals and community-based organizations.
  • Administration: The program is administered by the World Monuments Fund (WMF).
  • Awareness Raising: It serves as a platform to raise awareness regarding cultural heritage sites facing threats such as conflict, vandalism, disasters, or neglect.

Nana Jagannath Shankarseth

Source: IE

Why in News: The Maharashtra cabinet has resolved to request the Ministry of Railways to rename Mumbai Central station in honor of Nana Jagannath Shankarseth.Jagannath Shankarseth - Wikipedia

Social Contributions and Recognition:

  • Social Reformer and Philanthropist: Known for his endeavors in social reform, education, and philanthropy, he gained respect and admiration from both Indian and British communities.
  • Lifetime: He lived from 1803 to 1865.
  • Inspiration: He drew inspiration from Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, a prominent merchant and philanthropist of his time.
  • Political Achievement: Nana Jagannath Shankarseth made history by becoming the first Indian to be nominated to the Legislative Council of Bombay.

Contributions to Mumbai’s Development:

Architectural Influence: He played a pivotal role in shaping Mumbai by offering significant contributions, both in terms of ideas and financial support, across various sectors.

Education Sector: 

  • He generously donated land for educational institutions and advocated for the education of girls and women.
  • Founded the Native School of Bombay, later renamed as the Bombay Native Institution, which eventually evolved into the prestigious Elphinstone College.
  • He proposed naming Mumbai’s first medical college after Sir Robert Grant, the former Governor of Bombay, resulting in the establishment of Grant Medical College, one of the oldest medical institutions in South Asia.

Architectural Endeavors:

  • Alongside other affluent donors, he played a crucial role in the promotion of the Dr. Bhau Daji Lad Museum in Byculla.
  • He constructed the Bhawani Shankar Temple near Nana Chowk as a tribute to his late mother, Bhawanibai Murkute, and also erected a Ram temple.

Contribution to Railways:

  • As a committee member, he contributed significantly to the initiation of India’s first train, which operated between Boribunder and Thane (34 km) in 1853.

Devin AI

Source: IE

Why in News: Cognition has launched Devin AI, which is recognized as the world’s inaugural AI software engineer.Meet Devin: The World's First AI Software Engineer. | by Kristiyan Velkov |  Mar, 2024 | Medium

Key Features:

  • Advanced Capabilities: Devin encompasses a wide range of sophisticated functions in software development, including coding, debugging, and problem-solving.
  • Machine Learning Integration: It utilizes machine learning algorithms to continually enhance its performance, allowing it to adapt to evolving challenges over time.
  • End-to-End App Development: Devin is proficient in constructing and deploying applications from start to finish, and it can even train and refine its own AI models.
  • Project Management Skills: Capable of managing intricate engineering projects independently, Devin makes numerous decisions throughout the process.
  • Autonomous Problem-Solving: With the ability to remember critical details, learn from past experiences, and rectify errors autonomously, Devin ensures seamless operation.
  • Active Collaboration: It actively engages with users, providing real-time progress reports, receiving feedback, and collaborating with engineers on design decisions as required.

Performance Benchmark:

  • Devin’s performance on the SWE-Bench benchmark surpassed previous state-of-the-art models.
  • It autonomously resolved 13.86% of issues, compared to 1.96% without assistance from the previous model.
  • This exceptional performance significantly enhances efficiency and speed within software development processes, automating repetitive tasks, generating instant code, and reducing development costs.
  • Moreover, Devin’s operation is immune to human errors or inconsistencies.


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